Adam Clark Arcadi

Associate Professor


The primary focus of my research has been the study of wild chimpanzee communication, both vocal and percussive, and its significance for understanding chimpanzee social organization and the origin of language. I have conducted fieldwork in the Kibale National Park, Uganda, and collaborate with field workers at other sites to explore regional differences in chimpanzee communicative behavior.  I teach classes on primate behavior, human evolution, and wildlife conservation.

Research Focus

  • Chimpanzee social behavior 
  • Primate behavioral ecology and conservation
  • Human evolution


Arcadi, A. Clark (2018).  Wild Chimpanzees: Social Behavior of An Endangered Species.  Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Arcadi, A. Clark and Wallauer, W. (2013).  They wallop like they gallop: Audiovisual analysis reveals the influence of gait on buttress drumming by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).  International Journal of Primatology 34: 194-215.  DOI 10.1007/s10764-013-9656-1.

Arcadi, A. Clark and Wallauer, W. (2011).  Individual-level lateralization in the asymmetrical gaits of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Implications for hand preference and skeletal asymmetry?  Behaviour 148: 1419-1441.

Riede, T., Arcadi, A. Clark, and Owren, M.J. (2007).  Nonlinear acoustics in pant hoots of common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Vocalizing at the edge.  Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 121: 1758-1767.

Arcadi, A. Clark (2006).  Species resilience in Pleistocene hominids that traveled far and ate widely: An analogy to the wolf-like canids.  Journal of Human Evolution 51: 383-394.

Arcadi, A. Clark (2005).  Language evolution: What do chimpanzees have to say?  Current Biology 15: R884-R886.

Arcadi, A. Clark, Robert, D., and Mugurusi, F. (2004).  A comparison of buttress drumming by male chimpanzees from two populations.  Primates 45(2): 135-139.

Riede, T., Owren, M.J., and Arcadi, A. Clark (2004).  Nonlinear acoustics in pant hoots of common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Frequency jumps, subharmonics, biphonation, and deterministic chaos. American Journal of Primatology 64: 277-291.

Arcadi, A. Clark (2003). Is gestural communication more sophisticated than vocal communication in wild chimpanzees?  Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26(2): 210-211.

Arcadi, A. Clark (2000). Vocal responsiveness in male wild chimpanzees: Implications for the evolution of language.  Journal of Human Evolution 39: 205-223.

Arcadi, A. Clark and Wrangham, R. W.  (1999).  Infanticide in chimpanzees: Review of cases and a new within-group observation from the Kanyawara study group in Kibale National Park.  Primates 40(2): 337-351.

Marshall, A., Wrangham, R. and Arcadi, A. Clark (1999).  Does learning affect the structure of vocalizations in chimpanzees?  Animal Behaviour 58: 825-830.

Arcadi, A. Clark, Robert, D., and Boesch, C. (1998).  Buttress drumming by wild chimpanzees: Temporal patterning, phrase integration into loud calls, and preliminary evidence for individual distinctiveness. Primates 39(4): 503-516.

Arcadi, A. Clark (1996).  Phrase structure of wild chimpanzee pant hoots: Patterns of production and interpopulation variability.  American Journal of Primatology 39: 159-178.

Wrangham, R. W., Chapman, C.A., Arcadi, A. Clark, and Isabirye-Basuta, G. (1996).  Social ecology of Kanyawara chimpanzees: Implications for understanding the costs of great ape groups.  In: Great Ape Societies (W.C. McGrew, L.F. Marchant, and T. Nishida, eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 45-57. 

*Clark, A.P. and Wrangham, R. W.  (1994).  Chimpanzee arrival pant hoots: Do they signify food or status?  International Journal of Primatology 15: 185-205.

*Clark, A.P. (1993).  Rank differences in the production of vocalizations by Kibale Forest chimpanzees as a function of social context.  American  Journal of Primatology 31: 159-179.

*Clark, A.P. and Wrangham, R. W. (1993). Acoustic analysis of wild chimpanzee pant hoots: Do Kibale Forest chimpanzees have an acoustically distinct food arrival pant hoot?  American  Journal of Primatology 31: 99-109.

*Wrangham, R. W., Conklin, N. L., Etot, G., Obua, J., Hunt, K. D., Hauser, M. D., and Clark, A.P. (1993).  The value of figs to chimpanzees.  International Journal of Primatology 14 (2): 243-256.

*Wrangham,  R. W., Clark, A.P., and Isabirye-Basuta,  G. (1992).  Female social relationships and social organization of Kibale Forest chimpanzees.  In: Topics in Primatology, Vol. 1: Human Origins (T. Nishida, W. C. McGrew, P. Marler, M. Pickford, and F. de Waal, eds.), University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, pp. 81-98. 



*Until 1996 I published under the name Adam P. Clark.

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